3 edition of The effect of River Murray salinity on citrus production found in the catalog.
The effect of River Murray salinity on citrus production
P. J. Cole
|Statement||[by] P.J. Cole and P.I. McCloud.|
|Series||Technical papers / Australian Water Resources Council -- no.62, Technical papers -- no.62.|
|Contributions||McCloud, P. I.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||viii, 36p. ;|
|Number of Pages||36|
Salinity in the lower Murray was first recognised at the time of negotiation of the River Murray Water Agreement (). The water sharing arrangements included an allowance for maintaining water quality for downstream users through dilution. Water quality was formally introduced into the River Murray Waters Agreement in (Meacham ). Salinity is a significant management issue for the River Murray and the Murray-Darling Basin. Salt tends to accumulate in the lower reaches of the River Murray within South Australia and can have serious environmental, social and economic impacts.
Figure 10 Effect of increasing salinity level on the chloride content of leaves of six citrus root stocks (Cerda et al., ) iv. Rootstocks and salinity tolerance. Most fruit crops are more sensitive to salinity than are field, forage or vegetable crops (Figure 8h). University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL, ‐, USA Search for more papers by this author Book Editor(s).
Salt water flowed away from the emerging land back into the ocean, and a river was born which would eventually become the present-day Murray (see the beginnings). Throughout southern Australia today we are experiencing a wide-ranging and fundamental readjustment in environment. Salinity distributions in a longitudinal section of the Crystal River for various daily mean river discharges and high-tide stages at river mile 28 Relation between ratio of top-to-bottom salinity at site 29 (river mile ) and high-tide stage at Crystal River (site 36) 29
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ISBN: OCLC Number: Notes: Issued also as Dept. of National Development and Energy, Australian Water Resources Council, Research Project no. 79/ Salinity problems have been documented on Indian River citrus since as early as More recently, problems with salinity have occurred in citrus groves in the Tampa Bay and Southwest Florida production areas.
In some coastal areas, high salinity levels in wells can be attributed to salt water intrusion into the fresh water zone from the ocean. The effects of salinity on citrus species are reviewed. Salinity significantly limits citrus production in many areas worldwide.
Saline irrigation water reduces the yields of citrus. Fruit yields decrease about 13% for each dS m-1 increase in electrical conductivity of the saturated-soil extract (ECe) once soil salinity exceeds a threshold (ECe) of dS mAuthor: S.
Hepaksoy. Citrus is regarded as a salt-sensitive crop, but its yield response to salinity is affected by variety, rootstock, duration of salt exposure, irrigation management, soil type, and climate.
This study quantified the yield response of mature Valencia [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck)] orange trees on sweet orange (C. sinensis) rootstock to increased levels of sodium chloride in irrigation water in Cited by: This study documents changes in yield, growth, soil salinity (ECe) and leaf sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) concentrations in mature Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis ()] trees on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) rootstock in response to increased levels of Na and Cl in irrigation water.
Four levels of salt, ranging from the river-water control ( dS/m) to dS/m, were applied over a Cited by: tober citrus crop estimate to calculate potential scenarios for the season. Once again, the numbers predict that Florida citrus will continue to be a sustainable, vibrant industry and a key economic contributor to the state.
This season, both Florida and Brazil orange juice production. Murray Valley salinity & drainage, development of a coordinated plan for action a report to the River Murray Commission, Meacham Ian, The River Murray Salinity Problem -A discussion paper by River Murray Commission.
Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council, In this paper the adverse of effects of salinity on physiological aspects of citrus are reviewed. The review summarizes the prevailing state of knowledge about the responses and tolerance of citrus trees to salinity.
Citrus is salt-sensitive [3, 12, 25, 26, 42, 48]. Its response. The acceptable salinity limit for drinking and irrigation is EC and many, like Tony Roe, who grows grapes and citrus in South Australia's Riverland, think that is.
Salt stress also has signi cant effects on nitrogen (N) nutrition in plants. Salinity reduces the upta ke of NO 3 in many plant species, mostly due to the high Cl content of saline soil (Esringu.
irrigation water quality and salinity effects in citrus trees 63 P 9/17/03 AM Page 63 concluded that irrigation waters containing more than mg L –1 of B. In a nutshell, salinity is the salt content in water or soil. A certain amount is fine, but too much can be dangerous to most animals, plants and humans.
Salt leaves the Basin by flowing down the river and out through the Murray Mouth into the ocean, or is prevented from reaching the river in the first place by a salt interception scheme.
Harris, in Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, Dryland Salinity and Salinization of Inland Waters. Salinity in inland waters may be defined either as primary salinity – where the salinity is natural due either to sources of salt in watersheds or to high evaporation rates, or both – or secondary salinity where the salinity has arisen or increased due to human activity in the watershed.
The salinity zoning policy is currently South Australia’s key policy to address the salinity risk from irrigated agriculture along the River Murray in South Australia. The policy controls the amount of water that can be used for irrigation within defined high, low or high salt interception salinity impact zones and is implemented through the.
average, the river carries 1 to 2 million tonnes of salt a year out into the ocean. However, due to the low flows experienced over the last five or so years, salt is accumulating in the Basin - including both floodplains and river channel.
Maps of the Murray River in South Australia - showing to the left, landscape height directional flow of. Increased soil salinity may induce various primary and secondary salt stress effects in cultivated plants (section ). Salt stress as one of the most widespread abiotic constraints in food production may also result in the negative ecological, social and/or economic outcomes.
It has left sensitive river wetlands and river red gum forests under stress from lack of water and increased salinity. Inthe states signed up to the Murray. The Murray Darling Basin is an epicentre for the impact of climate change, in terms of water availability. It’s vital we have crops like rice and cotton that can produce in a good year.
Then. The higher the runoff of water per unit of watershed area is, the more salt is carried into the river that drains the watershed.
To quantify the relation, the author analyzed U.S. Geological Survey records for a year period showing the salt content and river-flow volume at selected sampling points for 15 rivers in the western U.S.
Abstract. Salinity stress decreases crop production by 50 % in irrigated farming systems of the arid and semi-arid regions, worldwide. At application rate of t beef feedlot ha −1 per year, large increases in exchangeable Na and K decreases crop yields on agricultural land treated with high levels of manure and this was attributed to salt and ammonium toxicity in the soil.
NSW produces aroundtonnes of citrus annually representing 40% of Australian production and 36% of citrus exports.
The largest and most important production areas in NSW are in the Riverina and Murray Valley regions, with smaller plantings located around Bourke, Narromine and the Central and North coast regions of NSW.Connor, JD  The economics of time delayed salinity impact management in the River Murray.
Letey, J and A Dinar  Simulated crop-water production functions for several crops when irrigated with saline waters. Yeo, A  Predicting the interaction between the effects of salinity and climate change on crop plants.In ecological terms seed production may be a survival mechanism, whereas in an agricultural context, it is commonly the seed which is harvested.
Therefore, there are three parameters which might be used to assess the effect of salt on a particular species — survival, vegetative growth and seed production.